5 Trending Functional Programming Languages You Should Know

Functional Programming Languages

If you spend some time reading the programming languages ​​on the Internet, you’ve probably heard something about functional programming. But what does this mean? Even if you know what application programming is, you probably do not know what the best programming languages ​​are. While you can see a functional programming example in any language, it’s easier to use in some languages.

What is functional programming?

If you have a math background, you’ve heard something about functional programming. Because functional programming functions like mathematical functions, but if you do not know about mathematics, this can confuse you.

Simply, functional programming treats functions and data, such as non-variables. You give the data to a function and its function changes to another kind of data. In functional programming, the function does not change the status of the program or the data. Here, there is a resemblance to the Unix philosophy that each program must do the right thing. A function should not manipulate a large part of the program, instead you must receive the input and give you output. Ideally, functions should be purely functional programming, which means that each input given to it is the same output.

Object-Oriented Programming versus Functional

In object-oriented programming, you usually have a basic object with a few proprietary methods for changing the data or object’s status, or it may even change the data or status. It’s responsive in programming programming. This type can make it harder to access programs because it is not always clear what changes the status or data. Functional programming is most commonly used in academic environments, but it can solve such problems.

1. Javascript

Some programming languages ​​provide functional programming, but others do it. Javascript is in the first category. While you can use functional programming examples in this language, you can do the same with object-oriented programming.

There are many examples of functional programming in javascript, such as functions with higher order. Javascript has many functions that use arrays such as map (), reduce (), filter (), etc. All of the above-mentioned functions are higher. This feature allows you to connect to each other with arrays of all kinds of things.

While javascript is not compatible with variability, the new ECMAScript version has solved the problem. You can use const and let instead of var key variables to specify variables. With the first one, you can specify the spaces and let with the let limit the variable’s scope to the function.

See Also: Worst Programming Languages 2019

2. Python

Like javascript, Python is a generic language where you can run different programming examples. Perhaps Python has its own weaknesses, but functional programming is not one of them. To start, you can see map (), filter (), reduce () and many similar functions. Like javascript, these are higher order functions. In Python, functional programming has an advantage, and that is the lambda keyword.

You can use lambda in several ways. One of these methods is to use it as a shortcut to simple functions. When you enter a variable, you can use the terms lambda as a standard python function. The main advantage of lambda terms is when you use it as anonymous functions.

Anonymous functions work in javascript and other list languages, and are used more time when used with higher order functions. Without anonymous functions, you need to even define simple functions.

3- Clojure

Unlike JavaScript and Python, Clojure may not even be well-known among programmers. Clojure is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, dating back to 1950. The specific function of this language with its various functions has become the ideal language for functional programming.

Like other Lisp phones, Clojure treats code like data. This means that the code can change itself. Unlike the other Lisp dialects, Clojure runs on the Java platform and is compiled on the JVM byte code so it can work with Java libraries.

Contrary to other languages ​​in this list, Clojure is generally a functional programming language, which means that, as far as possible, it adheres to non-changeability in the data structure. Clojure does not expect all programs to be mathematically verifiable, but use pure functions as much as possible.

4- Elm

One of the newest languages ​​in this list is Elm. This language, which is purely a functional language, was originally created by Evan Chillyki in 2012. This language is popular among web developers, especially those who make interfaces.

Unlike in the previous cases, Elm uses a dynamic test. As a result, there are no exceptions for runtime, and errors are detected at the computer time, thus the user sees less mistakes.

The compiler employs Elm, HTML, CSS and Javascript. In the same way that you can use Clojure to write programs running on Java, you can write apps that use the javascript libraries in Elm.

A major difference between Elm and other languages ​​is that you can not find functions like filter (), map (), and similar things. Instead, it is defined according to data types, such as List.map or Dict.map.

5- Haskell

Haskell is another pure functional language. Unlike Elm, Haskell is a relatively old language. The first version of the language was designed in 1990. The latest is Haskell 2010, and the next release will be released in 2020.

The fully functional Haskell nature means that by design, the functions have side effects. This makes it easy to solve problems in the real world with the deep roots of functional programming in the academic world.

Although Haskell is not very popular among people, it has been used among some very large projects. Windows Manager Xmonad is completely written in Haskell. Pandoc also uses this language to change the types of markup from other languages.

map (), filter (), reduce (), and other high-order functions are also available by which you can move concepts from javascript and python to Haskell.

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